Sulfuric acid is a widely recognized mineral acid that’s also referred to as vitriol oil. It is composed primarily of three elements: oxygen, hydrogen, and sulfur. Sulfuric acid is a colorless, odorless, and viscous chemical fluid with the chemical formula H_{2}SO_{4}.

Sulfuric acid is very acidic. As a result, it is used to clean metals, remove impurities from oil, make chemicals such as nitric acid and hydrochloric acid, and manufacture dye, medicines, detergents, and explosives, among other things. At higher concentrations, it functions as an oxidizing and dehydrating agent. When dissolved in water, it produces heat.

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**Equivalent Weight of H**_{2}SO_{4}

_{2}SO

_{4}

The concentration of acid or base in a solution is measured using normality (N). Normality and molarity are connected considering that molarity measures the concentration of ions and compounds in the solution, while normality reflects the molar concentration of an acid or basic component.

The amount of protons (H^{+}) or hydroxides (OH^{–}) that react with each other determines the normality of an acid-base reaction. Consider a 1 M solution of sulfuric acid, H_{2}SO_{4}. The number of moles of protons in the solution is the normality. Because in H_{2}SO_{4}, each molecule contains two protons, the normality is 2 N.

To determine how many grams of sulfuric acid you will need, you will first need to calculate the equivalent weight of H_{2}SO_{4}. We can calculate the equivalent mass using the following equation:

**Equivalent weight = **^{(molecular weight)}/_{(number of equivalent moles)}

The molecular weight of H_{2}SO_{4} is 98.07 g/mol.

The number of acid hydrogen in the compounds is 2.

or, Equivalent weight = ^{ 98.07g/mol}/_{2} = 49.035

Therefore, the **Equivalent weight is 49.035 g/mol.**

**Required Mass of H**_{2}SO_{4}

_{2}SO

_{4}

Calculating the mass of sulfuric acid required for the preparation of the desired volume of solution.

To calculate the amount of sulfuric acid we can use the given formula:

**Grams of compound needed = (N desired) x (equivalent mass) x (volume in liters)
**

Desired N is 1,

The equivalent mass is 49.035 g/mol

Grams of compound needed** =** (N desired) x (equivalent mass) x (volume in liters)

Grams of compound needed **=** 1N x 49 x 1 litre = 49 grams

Therefore, the **grams of compound required is 49 grams**.

**Required Volume of The Concentrated H**_{2}SO_{4}

_{2}SO

_{4}

A 1 N solution necessitates 49 g of pure sulfuric acid powder (if available) diluted to 1 L. However, the acid is a liquid, and it is not 100 percent pure active sulfuric acid. You must determine the amount of concentrated acid that includes 49 grams of sulfuric acid.

Since acid is in the liquid form we need to calculate the volume of the concentrated acid required using the given formula:

**Volume of concentrated acid required = (grams of acid needed) / (percent concentration x specific gravity)**

Here,

Concentration percent of sulfuric acid H_{2}SO_{4} = 97%

The volume of concentrated acid required = 49 grams

Specific gravity = 1.84 g/cm^{3}

The volume of concentrated acid required = (grams of acid needed) / (percent concentration x specific gravity)

Volume of concentrated acid required = 49 grams / (0.97 x 1.84) = 27.5 mL.

If you take 27.5 mL of concentrated sulfuric acid and dilute it to 1 L, you will get 1N H_{2}SO_{4}.

**Preparation of 1N H**_{2}SO_{4} Solution

_{2}SO

_{4}Solution

**Required Apparatus**

- Beaker
- Volumetric flask
- Measuring cylinder
- Pipette
- Pipette bulb
- Glass rod
- Concentrated sulfuric acid (H
_{2}SO_{4}) - Distilled water,

**Procedure of Preparing 1 N Sulfuric Acid Solution**

**Step 1**: Take a volumetric flask of 1 L.**Step 2**: Add 500 mL of distilled water to the flask**Step 3**: Using a pipette take 27.5 mL of conc. H_{2}SO_{4}and mix it with 500 mL of distilled water in the flask.**Step 4**: Mix it properly.**Step 5**: Allow it to cool at room temperature.**Step 6**: Adjust the volume to 1 litre adding the distilled water to the solution.

**Video on How to Prepare 1 N H**_{2}SO_{4} (Sulfuric Acid) Solution

_{2}SO

_{4}(Sulfuric Acid) Solution

**References**

- https://chrominfo.blogspot.com/2021/09/preparation-of-sulphuric-acid-solution.html
- https://pharmasciences.in/preparation-and-standardization-of-1-n-sulfuric-acid/
- https://pharmabeej.com/preparation-of-1-n-sulfuric-acid/
- https://irp.cdn-website.com/69adfbdd/files/uploaded/guwovubifikupisarep.pdf
- https://www.chemicalforums.com/index.php?topic=22530.0
- https://faculty.weber.edu/ewalker/chem2990/chem%202990%20readings%20-%20molarity%20and%20normality.pdf