Isoelectronic Species: Definition, Examples

The term “isoelectronic” is used to describe two atoms, ions, or molecules that share the same electronic structure and have an equal number of valence electrons. The term signifies “equal charge” or “equal electric”.

Isoelectronic species are atoms, molecules, or ions that have the same number of electrons.

Isoelectronic Species
Isoelectronic Species

Isoelectronic species are chemical species that have the same number of electrons. These species often exhibit similar chemical properties. Atoms or ions that have the same electronic configurations are referred to as isoelectronic with each other.

Isoelectronic Ions

Isoelectronic ions are ions that have the same number of electrons.

One example of an isoelectronic ion is the K+ ion, which is isoelectronic with the Ca2+ ion. Carbon monoxide (CO) is isoelectronic with nitrogen (N2) and NO+.

Isoelectronic Molecules

Isoelectronic molecules are groups of two or more atoms or molecules that have identical electronic configurations and structures but differ in the specific elements present within their structures.

Examples of isoelectronic molecules include carbon monoxide (CO), nitric oxide cation (NO+), and dinitrogen (N2).

Isoelectronic Series

An isoelectronic series is formed by atoms, ions, or molecules that have an equal number of electrons.

Examples of an isoelectronic series include nitrogen (N2), carbon monoxide (CO), and oxygen cation (O+).

O2−, F, Na+, Mg2+, and Al3+ all have different numbers of electrons.

Another example

N3, Al3+ and Mg2+ have different numbers of electrons. N3- has 10 electrons, Al3+ has 10 electrons, and Mg2+ has 12 electrons.

He, H, and Li+ are isoelectronic species because they all have the same number of electrons, which is 2. This means they also have the same electronic configuration.

It is important to mention that all isoelectronic species exhibit the same chemical properties.

Characteristics of Isoelectronic Species

  • These species differ in terms of their atomic numbers and atomic masses, which is the sum of protons and neutrons. However, they have the same number of electrons.
  • Isoelectronic species are atoms, ions, or molecules that have the same number of electrons. This means that they also have the same electronic configuration or arrangement of electrons in their energy levels.
  • Elements with the same electronic configuration tend to have similar values for electronegativity, ionization energy, and chemical reactivity.
  • The atomic radius of isoelectronic species can vary.

Isoelectronic Elements and Their Electron Configuration

Isoelectronic ElementsElectron ConfigurationNumber of Electrons
N3-, Al3+1S2 2S2 2P610
F, Ne1S2 2S2 2P610
Na+, Mg2+1S2 2S2 2P610
H, He, Li+, Be2+1S22
P3-, S2-, Cl, Ar, K+, Ca2+1S2 2S2 2P6 3S2 3P618

References

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Jyoti Bashyal

Jyoti Bashyal is a dedicated researcher specializing in computational chemistry, enzyme inhibition, in-vitro analysis, and sustainable chemistry. Alongside her scientific pursuits, she finds immense joy in creative writing, approaching her work with unwavering determination and a positive outlook. With an open mind and a thirst for knowledge, she embraces new opportunities to learn and grow, embodying the spirit of curiosity and continuous self-improvement.

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