Sulfuric acid is a well-known mineral acid that is also known as vitriol oil. It is largely made up of three elements: oxygen, hydrogen, and sulfur. Sulfuric acid, often known as H_{2}SO_{4}, is a colorless, odorless, and viscous chemical fluid.

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**Equivalent Weight of H**_{2}SO_{4}

_{2}SO

_{4}

The concentration of acid or base in a solution is measured using normality (N). Normality and molarity are connected considering that molarity measures the concentration of ions and compounds in the solution, while normality reflects the molar concentration of an acid or basic component.

The amount of protons (H^{+}) or hydroxides (OH^{–}) that react with each other determines the normality of an acid-base reaction. Consider a 1 M solution of sulfuric acid, H_{2}SO_{4}. The number of moles of protons in the solution is the normality. Because in H_{2}SO_{4}, each molecule contains two protons, the normality is 2 N.

To determine how many grams of sulfuric acid you will need, you will first need to calculate the equivalent weight of H_{2}SO_{4}. We can calculate the equivalent mass using the following equation:

**Equivalent weight = **^{(molecular weight)}/_{(number of equivalent moles)}

The molecular weight of H_{2}SO_{4} is 98.07 g/mol.

The number of acid hydrogen in the compounds is 2.

or, Equivalent weight = ^{ 98.07g/mol}/_{2} = 49.035

Therefore, the Equivalent weight is 49.035 g/mol**.**

**Required Mass of H**_{2}SO_{4}

**Required Mass of H**

_{2}SO_{4}Calculating the amount of sulfuric acid needed to make the appropriate volume of solution. We may use the following formula to determine the required mass of sulfuric acid:

**Grams of compound needed = (N desired) x (equivalent mass) x (volume in liters)
**

Desired N is 0.1,

The equivalent mass is 49.035 g/mol

Grams of compound needed** =** (N desired) x (equivalent mass) x (volume in liters)

Grams of compound needed **=** 0.1N x 49 x 1 litre = 4.9 grams

Therefore, the grams of compound required is 4.9 grams.

**Required Volume of the Concentrated H**_{2}SO_{4}

_{2}SO

_{4}

A 0.1 N solution requires 4.9 g of pure sulfuric acid powder (if available) diluted to 1 L. However, the acid is a liquid, and it is not 100 percent pure active sulfuric acid. You must calculate the amount of concentrated acid that contains 4.9 grams of sulfuric acid.

Because acid is a liquid, we must use the following formula to compute the volume of concentrated acid required:

**Volume of concentrated acid required = (grams of acid needed) / (percent concentration x specific gravity)**

Here,

Concentration percent of sulfuric acid H_{2}SO_{4} = 97%

The volume of concentrated acid required = 4.9 grams

Specific gravity = 1.84 g/cm^{3}

The volume of concentrated acid required = (grams of acid needed) / (percent concentration x specific gravity)

Volume of concentrated acid required = 4.9 grams / (0.97 x 1.84) = 2.75 mL.

If you take 2.75 mL of concentrated sulfuric acid and dilute it to 1 L, you will get 0.1N H_{2}SO_{4}.

**Preparation of 0.1 N H**_{2}SO_{4} Solution

_{2}SO

_{4}Solution

**Glassware and Apparatus Required**

For the Preparation of 0.1 N H_{2}SO_{4 }(sulfuric acid) solution you need to following apparatus:

- Beaker
- Volumetric flask
- Measuring cylinder
- Pipette
- Pipette bulb
- Glass rod
- Concentrated sulfuric acid (H
_{2}SO_{4}) - Distilled water,

**The procedure of Preparing 0.1 N Sulfuric Acid Solution**

For the Preparation of 0.1 N H_{2}SO_{4} (sulfuric acid) solution you need to follow the given steps:

**Step 1**: Take a volumetric flask of 1 L.**Step 2**: Add 500 mL of distilled water to the flask**Step 3**: Using a pipette take 2.75 mL of conc. H_{2}SO_{4}and mix it with 500 mL of distilled water in the flask.**Step 4**: Mix it properly.**Step 5**: Allow it to cool at room temperature.**Step 6**: Adjust the volume to 1 litre adding the distilled water to the solution.

**Video on Preparation of 0.1 N H2SO4 (Sulfuric Acid) Solution**

**References**

- https://www.wyzant.com/resources/answers/895672/what-is-the-calculation-of-100ml-of-0-1-n-h2so4-by-diluting-from-original-h
- https://courseware.cutm.ac.in/wp-content/uploads/2020/06/SULHURIC-ACID-PDF.pdf
- https://www.chemwifi.com/2019/02/prepare-standardization-0.1-N-sulphuric-acid.html#:~:text=Preparation%20of%200.1%20N%20Sulphuric,a%20tightly%20closed%20glass%20container.