Seaborgium (Sg) Element: Important Properties, Discovery, Uses, Effects

Seaborgium is a synthetic transition metal with an atomic number of 106 and is represented by the symbol ‘Sg’ in the periodic table. It is silvery in appearance and belongs to the d-block of period 7 of the periodic table. Rutherfordium was the third transactinide (super-heavy) element identified. Only tiny quantities of Seaborgium have been successfully synthesized, hence there isn’t much known about it based on experimental data, but some qualities can be predicted using periodic table trends.

Seaborgium (Sg) Element
Seaborgium (Sg) Element

Seaborgium was the first element named after someone who was actually alive. It was named in honor of nuclear chemist Glenn T. Seaborg’s achievements. Seaborg and his crew identified several actinide elements.

Discovery and History of Seaborgium

  • Seaborgium was initially synthesized by a Russian team led by Yuri Oganessia at Dubna, Russia, in 1974.
  • They blasted the lead-208 target with chromium-54 ions, yielding an atom of element 106, seaborgium-260.
  • A few months later, while working at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, a team of scientists led by Glenn T. Seaborg, Albert Ghiorso, and Carol Alonso succeeded in creating element 106.
  • The scientists discovered that blasting a californium-249 target with oxygen-18 ions formed a new element.
  • They discovered that the seaborgium isotope emits alpha particles and has a half-life of about one second.
  • The Berkeley/Livermore team presented the designation seaborgium for element 106, however the IUPAC had a stipulation that no element must be designated after a living person, so they suggested the name rutherfordium alternatively.
  • The American Chemical Society contested the verdict, noting an earlier instance in which the element name einsteinium was offered during Albert Einstein’s lifetime.
  • Following the dispute, the IUPAC gave element 106 its temporary identity unnilhexium (Uuh). In 1997, a compromise was reached which permitted element 106 to be named seaborgium, while element 104 was named Rutherfordium.

Occurrence of Seaborgium

  • Seaborgium is not found naturally in the Earth’s crust; it must be synthesized in particle accelerators. It cannot even be manufactured in a nuclear reactor.
  • Seaborgium is a radioactive metal generated through nuclear bombardment.
  • It has only been made in small quantities. So far, just a few atoms of seaborgium have been synthesized.
  • The metal is produced by blasting californium-249 with heavy oxygen ions.
  • Seaborgium contains 11 isotopes having known half-lives ranging in mass from 258 to 271.

Elemental Properties of Seaborgium

Electronic Configuration[Rn] 5f14 6d4 7s2
Atomic Number106
Atomic Weight266 g.mol -1
State at 20°CSolid
Group, Period, and BlockTrans-actinides, 7, d-block
Density
Ionic radius
Van der Waals radius
Electron shells2, 8, 18, 32, 32, 12, 2
Electrons106
Protons106
Neutrons165

Isotopic Information of Seaborgium

  • There are a total of 12 isotopes of seaborgium, with masses ranging from 258-267, 269, and 271. They’re unstable and artificial.
  • Heavy isotopes are more stable than lighter isotopes, hence seaborgium-269 and seaborgium-271 have a short half-life.
  • Seaborgium-261 has the shortest half-life, lasting approximately 92 microseconds.
  • All seaborgium isotopes decay via alpha particle emission and spontaneous fission, except seaborgium-261, which undergoes electron capture and transforms into dubnium-261.

Physical Properties of Seaborgium

  • Seaborgium is a synthetic, super-heavy transactinide element. It is expected to be solid under normal conditions.
  • The instability of seaborgium makes it difficult to conduct a statistically significant investigation of its physical properties.
  • It is found in the 7th period, the 6th Group, and the d-block of the periodic table.
  • The melting point and the boiling point of the element 106 is yet to be known.
  • The atomic mass of seaborgium is 266.
  • The density of seaborgium is also unknown as of now.
  • Due to its rapid disintegration, only a few properties of seaborgium have been investigated until now.
  • Its body-centered cubic crystal structure is comparable to that of tungsten, and it is projected to be in a solid state at normal conditions.

Chemical Properties of Seaborgium

  • The instability of seaborgium makes it difficult to conduct a statistically significant investigation of its chemical properties.
  • Experiments employing seaborgium have revealed chemical characteristics similar to tungsten, its lighter homologue on the periodic table. It is also chemically analogous to molybdenum.
  • Several seaborgium compounds and complex ions have been created and investigated, including SgO2Cl2, SgO3, SgO2(OH)2, SgO2F2, Sg(CO)6, [Sg(OH)5(H2O)]+, and [SgO2F3].
  • Seaborgium is a transition metal that appears on the periodic table in the d-block, 6th group, and 7th period.
  • The most common and stable oxidation states of seaborgium have been anticipated to be +6 and 0, while the least stable oxidation state for seaborgium is +3.
  • Seaborgium is expected to create halogen-containing compounds that are extremely volatile.
  • The properties of seaborgium that have been measured thus far are solely linked to singular chemistry.
  • Seaborgium must be created one atom at a time, which significantly limits experimental chemical experiments.
  • Seaborgium has been shown to produce chlorides, fluorides, and oxy compounds.

Synthesis of Seaborgium

  • All elements with atomic numbers more than 100 can only be created through reactions in a particle accelerator, such as a cyclotron; they do not develop in a nuclear reactor.
  • Lead-208 blasted with chromium-54 produces seaborgium-260.

Uses of Seaborgium

  • Given barely any atoms of this metal have been created to date, there are currently no specific or exclusive uses of seaborgium outside of scientific research.
  • Furthermore, because it is unavailable in nature, seaborgium is only employed by scientific researchers, with no recognized negative effects or uses for the metal among individuals and organizations.
  • Seaborgium is currently solely used in studies to learn more about its characteristics and to manufacture isotopes of other elements.
  • Seaborgium performs no biological purpose. Because it is a heavy metal that decays to release alpha particles, it is highly poisonous.

Health Effects of Seaborgium

  • Since it is so unstable, any amount generated might quickly degrade into other elements, leaving no incentive to explore its impact on human health.

Environmental Effects of Seaborgium

  • Seaborgium’s environmental effects are negligible due to its short half-life (just a few minutes).

Video on Seaborgium

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References

  • https://engineeredlabs.com/products/seaborgium-cube-element
  • https://chemicalengineeringworld.com/seaborgium-element-properties-and-information/
  • https://www.thoughtco.com/seaborgium-facts-sg-or-element-106-3875708
  • https://www.chemicool.com/elements/seaborgium.html
  • https://periodic-table.com/seaborgium/

About Author

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Jyoti Bashyal

Jyoti Bashyal, a graduate of the Central Department of Chemistry, is an avid explorer of the molecular realm. Fueled by her fascination with chemical reactions and natural compounds, she navigates her field's complexities with precision and passion. Outside the lab, Jyoti is dedicated to making science accessible to all. She aspires to deepen audiences' understanding of the wonders of various scientific subjects and their impact on the world by sharing them with a wide range of readers through her writing.

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