This curriculum presumes that the students joining grade 11 science stream come with diverse aspirations, some may continue to higher level studies in specific areas of science, others may join technical and vocational areas or even other streams. The curriculum is designed to provide students with general understanding of the fundamental scientific laws and principles that govern the scientific phenomena in the world. It focuses to develop scientific knowledge, skill competences and attitudes required at secondary level (grade 11) irrespective of what they do beyond this level, as envisioned by national goals. Understanding of scientific concepts and their application, in day to day context as well as the process of obtaining new knowledge through holistic approach of learning in the spirit of national qualification framework is emphasized in the curriculum.

In particular, this curriculum aims to provide sufficient knowledge and understanding of science for all learners to become confident citizens in the technological world. It helps the students to recognize the usefulness and limitations of laws and principles of physics and use them in solving problems encountered in their daily lives along a sound foundation for students who wish to study physics or related professional or vocational courses in higher education. It also helps to develop science related attitudes such as a concern for safety and efficiency, concern for accuracy and precision, objectivity, a spirit of enquiry, inventiveness, appreciation of ethno science, and willingness to use technology for effective communication. It also promotes awareness of the principles and laws of science that are often the result of cumulative efforts and their studies and applications are subject to economic and technological limitations and social, cultural and ethical perceptions/acceptance.

The curriculum prepared in accordance with National Curriculum Framework is structured for one academic year (grade 11) in such a way that it incorporates the level-wise competencies, grade-wise leaning outcomes, scope and sequence of contents, suggested practical/project activities, learning facilitation process and assessment strategies so as to enhance the learning on the subject systematically.

**Content Area: Mechanics**

Interesting Science Videos

**1. Physical Quantities**

1.1. Precision and significant figures. Dimensions and uses of dimensional analysis.

**Grade-wise learning outcomes**

1.1 Demonstrate the meaning, importance, and applications of precision in the measurements.

1.2 Understand the meaning and importance of significant figures in measurements.

1.3 Explain the meaning of dimensions of a physical quantity.

1.4 Workout the dimensions of derived physical quantities applicable to this syllabus.

1.5 Apply dimensional analysis method to check the homogeneity of physical equations.

**2. Vectors**

2.1. Triangle, parallelogram, and polygon laws of vectors.

2.2. Resolution of vectors; Unit vectors.

2.3. Scalar and vector products.

**Grade-wise learning outcomes**

2.1 Distinguish between scalar and vector quantities.

2.2 Add or subtract coplanar vectors by drawing scale diagram (vector triangle, parallelogram or polygon method).

2.3 Understand the meaning and importance of unit vectors.

2.4 Represent a vector as two perpendicular components.

2.5 Resolve co-planer vectors using component method.

2.6 Describe scalar and vector products.

2.7 Understand the meaning and applications of scalar and vector product with examples.

2.8 Solve related problems.

**3. Kinematics**

3.1 Instantaneous velocity and acceleration.

3.2 Relative velocity.

3.3 Equation of motion (graphical treatment).

3.4 Motion of a freely falling body.

3.5 Projectile motion and its applications.

**Grade-wise learning outcomes**

3.1 Define displacement, instantaneous velocity and acceleration with relevant examples.

3.2 Explain and use the concept of relative velocity.

3.3 Draw displacement-time and velocity-time graph to represent motion, and determine velocity from the gradient of displacement-time graph, acceleration from the gradient of velocity-time graph and displacement from the area under a velocity-time graph.

3.4 Establish equations for a uniformly accelerated motion in a straight line from graphical representation of such motion and use them to solve related numerical problems.

3.5 Write the equations of motion under the action of gravity and solve numerical problem related to it.

3.6 Understand projectile motion as motion due to a uniform velocity in one direction and a uniform acceleration in a perpendicular direction, derive the equations for various physical quantities (maximum height, time of flight, time taken to reach maximum height, horizontal

range, resultant velocity) and use them to solve mathematical problems related to projectile motion.

**4. Dynamics**

4.1 Linear momentum, Impulse.

4.2 Conservation of linear momentum.

4.3 Application of Newton’s laws.

4.4 Moment, torque and equilibrium.

4.5 Solid friction: Laws of solid friction and their verifications.

**Grade-wise learning outcomes**

4.1 Define linear momentum, impulse, and establish the relation between them.

4.2 Define and use force as rate of change of momentum.

4.3 State and prove the principle of conservation of linear momentum using Newton’s second and Newton’s third of motion.

4.4 Define and apply moment of a force and torque of a couple.

4.5 State and apply the principle of moments.

4.6 State and apply the conditions necessary for a particle to be in equilibrium.

4.7 State and explain the laws of solid friction.

4.8 Show the coefficient of friction is equal to the tangent of angle of repose and use the concept to solve problems.

4.9 Solve the numerical problem and conceptual question on dynamics.

**5. Work, energy, and power**

5.1 Work done by a constant force and a variable force.

5.2 Power.

5.3 Work-energy theorem; Kinetic and potential energy.

5.4 Conservation of Energy.

5.5 Conservative and non-conservative forces.

5.6 Elastic and inelastic collisions.

**Grade-wise learning outcomes**

5.1 Explain work done by a constant force and a variable force.

5.2 State and prove work-energy theorem.

5.3 Distinguish between kinetic energy and potential energy and establish their formulae.

5.4 State and prove the principle of conservation of energy.

5.5 Differentiate between conservative and non-conservative force.

5.6 Differentiate between elastic and inelastic collision and hence explain the elastic collision in one dimension.

5.7 Solve the numerical problems and conceptual questions regarding work, energy, power and collision.

**6. Circular motion**

6.1 Angular displacement, velocity and acceleration.

6.2 Relation between angular and linear velocity and acceleration.

6.3 Centripetal acceleration.

6.4 Centripetal force.

6.5 Conical pendulum.

6.6 Motion in a vertical circle.

6.7 Applications of banking.

**Grade-wise learning outcomes**

6.1 Define angular displacement, angular velocity and angular acceleration.

6.2 Establish the relation between angular and linear velocity & acceleration.

6.3 Define centripetal force.

6.4 Derive the expression for centripetal acceleration and use it to solve problems related to centripetal force.

6.5 Describe the motion in vertical circle, motion of vehicles on banked surface.

6.6 Derive the period for conical pendulum.

6.7 Solve the numerical problem and conceptual question on circular motion.

**7. Gravitation**

7.1 Newton’s law of gravitation.

7.2 Gravitational field strength.

7.3 Gravitational potential; Gravitational potential energy.

7.4 Variation in value of ‘g’ due to altitude and depth.

7.5 Centre of mass and center of gravity.

7.6 Motion of a satellite: Orbital velocity and time period of the satellite.

7.7 Escape velocity.

7.8 Potential and kinetic energy of the satellite.

7.9 Geostationary satellite.

7.10 GPS.

**Grade-wise learning outcomes**

7.1 Explain Newton’s law of gravitation.

7.2 Define gravitational field strength.

7.3 Define and derive formula of gravitational potential and gravitational potential energy.

7.4 Describe the variation in value of ‘g’ due to altitude and depth.

7.5 Define center of mass and center of gravity.

7.6 Derive the formula for orbital velocity and time period of satellite.

7.7 Define escape velocity and derive the expression of escape velocity.

7.8 Find the potential and kinetic energy of the satellite.

7.9 Define geostationary satellite and state the necessary conditions for it.

7.10 Describe briefly the working principle of Global Position -System (GPS).

7.11 Solve the numerical problems and conceptual questions regarding related to the gravitation.

**8. Elasticity**

8.1 Hooke’s law: Force constant.

8.2 Stress; Strain; Elasticity and plasticity.

8.3 Elastic modulus: Young modulus, bulk modulus, shear modulus.

8.4 Poisson’s ratio.

8.5 Elastic potential energy.

**Grade-wise learning outcomes**

8.1 State and explain Hooke’s law.

8.2 Define the terms stress, strain, elasticity and plasticity.

8.3 Define the types of elastic modulus such as young modulus, bulk modulus and shear modulus.

8.4 Define Poisson’s ratio.

8.5 Derive the expression for energy stored in a stretched wire.

8.6 Solve the numerical problems and conceptual questions regarding elasticity.

**Content Area: Heat and thermodynamics**

**9. Heat and temperature**

9.1 Molecular concept of thermal energy, heat and temperature, and cause and direction of heat flow.

9.2 Meaning of thermal equilibrium and Zeroth law of thermodynamics.

9.3 Thermal equilibrium as a working principle of mercury thermometer.

**Grade-wise learning outcomes**

9.1 Explain the molecular concept of thermal energy, heat and temperature, and cause and direction of heat flow.

9.2 Explain the meaning of thermal equilibrium and Zeroth law of thermodynamics.

9.3 Explain thermal equilibrium as a working principle of mercury thermometer.

**10. Thermal Expansion**

10.1 Linear expansion and its measurement.

10.2 Cubical expansion, superficial expansion and its relation with linear expansion.

10.3 Liquid Expansion: Absolute and apparent.

10.4 Dulong and Petit method of determining expansivity of liquid.

**Grade-wise learning outcomes**

10.1 Explain some examples and applications of thermal expansion, and demonstrate it with simple experiments.

10.2 Explain linear, superficial, cubical expansion and define their corresponding coefficients with

physical meaning.

10.3 Establish a relation between coefficients of thermal expansion.

10.4 Describe Pullinger’s method to determine coefficient of linear expansion.

10.5 Explain force set up due to expansion and contraction.

10.6 Explain differential expansion and its applications.

10.7 Explain the variation of density with temperature.

10.8 Explain real and apparent expansion of liquid appreciating the relation γr = γg + γa.

10.9 Describe Dulong and Petit’s experiment to determine absolute expansivity of

liquid.

10.10 Solve mathematical problems related to thermal expansion.

**11. Quantity of Heat**

11.1 Newton’s law of cooling.

11.2 Measurement of specific heat capacity of solids and liquids.

11.3 Change of phases: Latent heat.

11.4 Specific latent heat of fusion and vaporization.

11.5 Measurement of specific latent heat of fusion and vaporization.

11.6 Triple point.

**Grade-wise learning outcomes**

11.1 Define heat capacity and specific heat capacity and explain application of high specific heat capacity of water and low specific heat capacity of cooking oil and massage oil.

11.2 Describe Newton’s law of cooling with some suitable daily life examples.

11.3 Explain the principle of calorimetry and describe any one standard process of determining specific heat capacity of a solid.

11.4 Explain the meaning of latent heat of substance appreciating the graph between heat and temperature and define specific latent heat of fusion and vaporization.

11.5 Describe any one standard method of fusion and explain briefly the effect of external pressure on boiling and melting point.

11.6 Distinguish evaporation and boiling.

11.7 Define triple point.

11.8 Solve mathematical problems related to heat.

**12. Rate of heat flow**

12.1 Conduction: Thermal conductivity and measurement.

12.2 Convection.

12.3 Radiation: Ideal radiator.

12.4 Black- body radiation.

12.5 Stefan – Boltzmann law.

**Grade-wise learning outcomes**

12.1 Explain the transfer of heat by conduction, convection and radiation with examples and state their applications in daily life.

12.2 Define temperature gradient and relate it with rate of heat transfer along a

conductor.

12.3 Define coefficient of thermal conductivity and describe Searl’s method for its determination.

12.4 Relate coefficient of reflection (r), coefficient of transmission (t) and coefficient of absorption (r + a + t = 1).

12.5 Explain ideal radiator (e= 1, a =1) and black body radiation.

12.6 State and explain Stefan’s law of black body radiation using terms; emissive power and emissivity.

12.7 Describe idea to estimate apparent temperature of sun.

12.8 Solve mathematical problems related to thermal conduction and black body radiations.

**13. Ideal gas**

13.1 Ideal gas equation.

13.2 Molecular properties of matter.

13.3 Kinetic-molecular model of an ideal gas.

13.4 Derivation of pressure exerted by gas.

13.5 Average translational kinetic energy of gas molecule.

13.6 Boltzmann constant, root mean square speed.

13.7 Heat capacities: gases and solids.

**Grade-wise learning outcomes**

13.1 Relate pressure coefficient and volume coefficient of gas using Charles’s law and Boyle’s law.

13.2 Define absolute zero temperature with the support of P – V, V- T graph.

13.3 Combine Charles’s law and Boyle’s law to obtain ideal gas equation.

13.4 Explain molecules, intermolecular forces, moles and Avogadro’s number.

13.5 Explain the assumptions of kinetic – molecular model of an ideal gas.

13.6 Derive expression for pressure exerted by gas due to collisions with wall of the container appreciating the use of Newton’s law of motion.

13.7 Explain the root mean square speed of gas and its relationship with temperature and molecular mass.

13.8 Relate the pressure and kinetic energy.

13.9 Calculate the average translational kinetic energy of gas for 1 molecule and Avogadro’s number of molecules.

13.10 Solve mathematical problems related ideal gas.

**Content Area: Waves & Optics**

**14. Reflection at curved mirror**

14.1 Real and Virtual images.

14.2 Mirror formula.

**Grade-wise learning outcomes**

14.1 State the relation between object distance, image distance and focal length of curved mirrors.

14.2 State the relation between object size and image size.

14.3 Know the difference between the real and virtual image in geometrical optics.

14.4 Calculate the focal length of curved mirrors and its applications.

**15. Refraction at plane surfaces**

15.1 Laws of refraction: Refractive index.

15.2 Relation between refractive indices.

15.3 Lateral shift.

15.4 Total internal reflection.

**Grade-wise learning outcomes**

15.1 Recall the laws of refraction.

15.2 Understand the meaning of lateral shift.

15.3 Understand the meaning of refractive index of a medium.

15.4 Calculate refractive index of a medium using angle of incidence and angle of refraction.

15.5 Learn the relation between the refractive indices.

15.6 Know the meaning of total internal reflection and the condition for it.

15.7 Understand critical angle and learn the applications of total internal reflection.

15.8 Explain the working principle of optical fiber.

**16. Refraction through prisms**

16.1 Minimum deviation condition.

16.2 Relation between Angle of prism, minimum deviation and refractive index.

16.3 Deviation in small angle prism.

**Grade-wise learning outcomes**

16.1 Understand minimum deviation condition.

16.2 Discuss relation between angle of prism, angle of minimum deviation and refractive index.

16.3 Use above relations to find the values of refractive index of the prism.

16.4 Understand deviation in small angle prism and learn its importance in real life.

**17. Lenses**

17.1 Spherical lenses, angular magnification.

17.2 Lens maker’s formula.

17.3 Power of a lens.

**Grade-wise learning outcomes**

17.1 State properties of Spherical lenses.

17.2 State the relation between object distance, image distance and focal length of a convex lens.

17.3 Define visual angle and angular magnification.

17.4 Derive Lens maker’s formula and use it to find focal length.

**18. Dispersion**

18.1 Pure spectrum and dispersive power.

18.2 Chromatic and spherical aberration.

18.3 Achromatism and its applications.

**Grade-wise learning outcomes**

18.1 Understand pure spectrum.

18.2 Learn the meaning of dispersive power.

18.3 Discuss chromatic and spherical aberration.

18.4 Discuss achromatism in lens and its applications.

**Content Area: Electricity & Magnetism**

**19. Electric Charges**

19.1 Electric charges.

19.2 Charging by induction.

19.3 Coulomb’s law- Force between two point charges.

19.4 Force between multiple electric charges.

**Grade-wise learning outcomes**

19.1 Understand the concept of electric charge and charge carriers.

19.2 Understand the process of charging by friction and use the concept to explain related day to day observations.

19.3 Understand that, for any point outside a spherical conductor, the charge on the sphere may be considered to act as a point charge at its centre.

19.4 State Coulomb’s law.

19.5 Recall and use 𝐹 = *Qq / 4πε _{0}r^{2}* for the force between two point charges in free space or air.

19.6 Compute the magnitude and direction of the net force acting at a point due to multiple charges.

**20. Electric field**

20.1 Electric field due to point charges; Field lines.

20.2 Gauss Law: Electric Flux.

20.3 Application of Gauss law: Field of a charge sphere, line charge, charged plane conductor.

**Grade-wise learning outcomes**

20.1 Describe an electric field as a region in which an electric charge experiences a force.

20.2 Define electric field strength as force per unit positive charge acting on a stationary point charge.

20.3 Calculate forces on charges in uniform electric fields of known strength.

20.4 Use *E = Q / 4πε _{0}r^{2}* strength of a point charge in free space or air.

20.5 Illustrate graphically the changes in electric field strength with respect distance from a point charge.

20.6 Represent an electric field by means of field lines.

20.7 Describe the effect of a uniform electric field on the motion of charged particles.

20.8 Understand the concept of electric flux of a surface.

20.9 State Gauss law and apply it for a field of a charged sphere and for line charge.

20.10 Understand that uniform field exists between charged parallel plates and sketch the field lines.

**21. Potential, potential difference and potential energy**

21.1 Potential difference, Potential due to a point, Charge, potential energy, electron volt.

21.2 Equipotential lines and surfaces.

21.3 Potential gradient.

**Grade-wise learning outcomes**

21.1 Define potential at a point as the work done per unit positive charge in bringing a small test charge from infinity to the point.

21.2 Use electron volt as a unit of electric potential energy.

21.3 Recall and use 𝑉 = *Q / 4πε _{0}r* for the potential in the field of a point charge.

21.4 Illustrate graphically the variation in potential along a straight line from the source charge and understand that the field strength of the field at a point is equal to the negative of potential

gradient at that point.

21.5 Understand the concept of equipotential lines and surfaces and relate it to potential difference between two points.

21.6 Recall and use 𝐸 = Δv / Δx to calculate the field strength of the uniform field between charged parallel plates in terms of potential difference and separation.

**22. Capacitor**

22.1 Capacitance and capacitor.

22.2 Parallel plate capacitor.

22.3 Combination of capacitors.

22.4 Energy of charged capacitor.

22.5 Effect of a dielectric Polarization and displacement.

**Grade-wise learning outcomes**

22.1 capacitance and capacitor.

a. Show understanding of the uses of capacitors in simple electrical circuits.

b. Define capacitance as the ratio of the change in an electric charge in a system to the .corresponding change in its electric potential and associate it to the ability of a system to store

charge.

c. Use *𝐶 = Q / V*.

d. Relate capacitance to the gradient of potential-charge graph.

22.2 Parallel plate capacitor.

a. Derive *𝐶 = ε _{0} A / d*, using Gauss law and

*𝐶 = Q / V*, for parallel plate capacitor.

b. Explain the effect on the capacitance of parallel plate capacitor of changing the surface area and separation of the plates.

c. Explain the effect of a dielectric in a parallel plate capacitor.

22.3 Combination of capacitors.

a. Derive formula for combined capacitance for capacitors in series combinations.

b. Solve problems related to capacitors in series combinations.

c. Derive formula for combined capacitance for capacitors in parallel combinations.

d. Solve problems related to capacitors in parallel combinations.

22.4 Energy stored in a charged capacitor

a. Deduce, from the area under the potential-charge graph, the equations 𝐸 = 1/2 𝑄𝑉 and hence

*𝐸 = 1/2 𝐶𝑉*for the average electrical energy of charged capacitor.

^{2}22.5 Effect of dielectric.

a. Show understanding of a dielectric as a material that polarizes when subjected to electric field.

b. Explain the effect of inserting dielectric between the plates of a parallel plate capacitor on its

capacitance.

**23. DC Circuits**

23.1 Electric Currents; Drift velocity and its relation with current.

23.2 Ohm’s law; Electrical Resistance; Resistivity; Conductivity.

23.3 Current-voltage relations; Ohmic and Non-Ohmic resistance.

23.4 Resistances in series and parallel.

23.5 Potential divider.

23.6 Electromotive force of a source, internal resistance.

23.7 Work and power in electrical circuits.

**Grade-wise learning outcomes**

23.1 Electric Currents; Drift velocity and its relation with current.

a. Understand the concept that potential difference between two points in a drift.

b. Define electric current as the rate of flow of positive charge, *Q = It*.

c. Derive, using *Q=It* and the definition of average drift velocity, the expression *I=nAvq* where n is the number density of free charge carriers.

23.2 Ohm’s law Ohm’s law; Electrical Resistance: resistivity and conductivity.

a. Define and apply electric resistance as the ratio of potential difference to current.

b. Define ohm , resistivity and conductivity.

c. Use *R = ρl /A* for a conductor.

d. Explain, using *R = ρl /A,* how changes in dimensions of a conducting wire works as a variable

resistor.

e. Show an understanding of the structure of strain gauge (pressure sensor) and relate change in pressure to change in in resistance of the gauge.

f. Show an understanding of change of resistance with light intensity of a light-dependent resistor (the light sensor).

g. Show an understanding of change of resistance of n-type thermistor to change in temperature (electronic temperature sensor).

23.3 Current-voltage relations: ohmic and non-ohmic.

a. Sketch and discuss the I–V characteristics of a metallic conductor at constant temperature, a semiconductor diode and a filament lamp.

b. State Ohm’s law and identify ohmic and non-ohmic resistors.

23.4 Resistances in series and parallel.

a. Derive, using laws of conservation of charge and conservation of energy, a formula for the combined resistance of two or more resistors in parallel.

b. Solve problems using the formula for the combined resistance of two or more resistors in series.

c. Derive, using laws of conservation of charge and conservation of energy, a formula for the combined resistance of two or more resistors in parallel.

d. Solve problems using the formula for the combined resistance of two or more resistors in series and parallel to solve simple circuit problems.

23.5 Potential divider.

a. Understand the principle of a potential divider circuit as a source of variable p.d. and use it in simple circuits.

b. Explain the use of sensors (thermistors, light-dependent resistors and strain gauges) in potential divider circuit as a source of potential difference that is dependent on temperature, illumination and strain respectively.

23.6 Electromotive force of a source, internal resistance.

a. Define electromotive force (e.m.f.) in terms of the energy transferred by a source in driving unit charge round a complete circuit.

b. Distinguish between e.m.f. and potential difference (p.d.) in terms of energy considerations.

c. Understand the effects of the internal resistance of a source of e.m.f. on the terminal potential difference.

23.7 Work and power in electrical circuit

a. Derive from the definition of V and I, the relation *P=IV* for power in electric circuit

b. Use P=IV

c. Derive *P=I ^{2}R* for power dissipated in a resistor of resistance R and use the formula for solving the problems of heating effects of electric current.

**Content Area: Modern Physics**

**24. Nuclear physics**

24.1 Nucleus: Discovery of nucleus.

24.2 Nuclear density; Mass number; Atomic number.

24.3 Atomic mass; Isotopes.

24.4 Einstein’s mass-energy relation.

24.5 Mass Defect, packing fraction, BE per nucleon.

24.6 Creation and annihilation.

24.7 Nuclear fission and fusion, energy released.

**Grade-wise learning outcomes**

24.1 Explain how nucleus was discovered.

24.2 Convey the meaning of mass number, atomic number.

24.3 Calculate the expression of nuclear density.

24.4 Explain the existence of different isotopes of the same element.

24.5 Describe main theme of Einstein’s mass energy relation and state the relation.

24.6 Explain the meaning of mass defect and cause of it.

24.7 Describe the terms creation and annihilation.

24.8 Derive the relation of binding energy and binding energy per unit nucleon of

different nuclei.

24.9 Plot a graph between BE per nucleon and mass number of different nuclei.

24.10 Define nuclear fusion and fission and explain the mechanism of energy release.

24.11 Solve numerical problems related to nuclear physics.

**25. Solids**

25.1 Energy bands in solids (qualitative ideas).

25.2 Difference between metals, insulators and semi-conductors using band theory.

25.3 Intrinsic and extrinsic semiconductors.

**Grade-wise learning outcomes**

25.1 Distinguish between energy level and energy band along with the formation of energy band in solids.

25.2 Differentiate metals, semiconductors, and conductors on the basis of energy band.

25.3 Explain the meaning of intrinsic and extrinsic semiconductors with examples.

25.4 Explain how p and n type semiconductors are formed.

25.5 Interpret unit related conceptual questions clearly.

**26. Recent Trends in Physics**

26.1 Particle physics: Particles and antiparticles, Quarks (baryons and meson) and leptons

(neutrinos).

26.2 Universe: Big Bang and Hubble law: expansion of the Universe, Dark matter, Black Hole and

gravitational wave.

**Grade-wise learning outcomes**

26.1 Explain elementary particles and antiparticles.

26.2 Classify the particles with examples.

26.3 Name different quarks with their charges and symbols.

26.4 Write quark combination of few mesons and baryons particles.

26.5 Describe leptons with examples.

26.6 Explain Big Bang and Hubble’s law and justify the expansion of the universe.

26.7 Briefly describe dark matter, black hole and gravitational wave.